How Does Computer Memory Work

Is your memory more like that of an elephant or a sieve? There are plenty of people who compare themselves to these things, but it is rare to hear someone declare their memory is comparable to one. One reason for this is because human brains and computer memories serve very distinct functions and work in very different ways. But it also reflects the fact that computer memories are the closest thing we have to memory perfection, when we humans often struggle to remember names, faces, and even the day of the week. How do these “amazing rememberers” actually operate, and what is their secret? What do you think? Let’s investigate!
Photo: An integrated circuit, such as this computer memory chip, is an example. That means it’s a collection of thousands of electronic pieces (components) on a small silicon chip the size of a pinkie nail. This is a USB memory stick’s 1-gigabit NAND flash memory chip.


What is memory?


Illustration: Although it is not possible to teach a computer to remember things in the same way that a human brain does, it is possible to teach a computer to recognize patterns and recall things in a manner that is similar to how a brain does it by utilizing something that is called a neural network. Jan Stephan van Calcar, who collaborated closely with the pioneering anatomist Andreas Vesalius, created this historic picture of the brain’s anatomy around the year 1543.
Memory, whether it be human or computer, serves the fundamental function of maintaining a record of information for a set amount of time. The ability of the human memory to forget things is one of the most striking characteristics of this particular form of storage. If you don’t take into account the fact that our ability to focus on multiple things at once is limited, that might sound like a huge flaw. That is to say, forgetting is most likely a sophisticated strategy that humans have evolved to help us focus on the things that are instantly relevant and crucial in the midst of the endless chaos of our everyday lives — a means of concentrating on what really counts. When you forget something, it’s like cleaning out your closet so you can create place for new things to come in.
In contrast to human brains, computers do not remember or lose information in the same way that we do. Computers operate using a binary system, which is detailed in greater detail in the next box: they either know something or they don’t, and once they’ve learnt something, they generally don’t forget it unless there is some kind of catastrophic failure. People are unique among animals. We could be able to identify things (like “I’ve seen that face before somewhere”) or have the impression that we know something (like “I remember studying the German term for cherry when I was in school”) even if we are unable to recall specific details about such things. Memory in humans, as opposed to computers, can be forgotten, then remembered, then forgotten, and so on, giving the impression that it is more closely related to art or magic than it is to science or technology. When smart people master strategies that enable them to memorize thousands of pieces of information, they are celebrated as though they were great magicians. This is the case despite the fact that what they have accomplished is much less impressive than anything a USB flash memory stick that costs five dollars could do!


The two types of memory


Memory is something that both human brains and computers share, although they also have their own unique flavor. The human memory is actually composed of two distinct parts: a “working” memory that is short-term and stores information that we have recently seen, heard, or processed with our brains, and a “long-term memory” that stores information that we have learned, events that we have experienced, things that we know how to do, and so on, that we generally need to remember for much longer. The typical personal computer also incorporates two distinct forms of memory within its design.
There is a main memory that is built in, sometimes referred to as internal memory, and it is comprised of silicon chips (integrated circuits). Since it is able to store and retrieve data (information that has been processed) relatively quickly, it is utilized to assist the computer in processing whatever it is currently working on. In most cases, the contents of the device’s internal memory are lost as soon as the power is turned off because the memory is considered to be volatile. Because of this, computers also include something that is referred to as auxiliary memory (or storage), which remembers items even when the power is disconnected from the device. The supplementary memory of a standard personal computer (PC) or laptop is typically supplied by either a hard drive or a flash memory device. Because it was often located in a completely different machine that was connected to the main computer box by a cable in older, larger computers, auxiliary memory is sometimes referred to as external memory. Plug-in hard drives, CD/DVD ROMs and rewriters, USB flash memory sticks, and SD memory cards (which can be inserted into devices such as digital cameras) are some examples of the types of auxiliary storage that are commonly available in today’s personal computers. In a similar vein, modern PCs frequently come equipped with USB flash memory sticks and SD memory cards.

A couple of samples of supplemental memory can be seen in this photo in the form of hard disks. On the left, we have a hard drive for a PCMCIA iPod card that is 20 gigabytes in capacity. On the right, there is a somewhat larger hard drive taken from a laptop that has 30 GB of storage space. When compared with the 256 MB flash memory chip shown in the top shot, the capacity of the 30 GB hard drive is almost 120 times more. You can view more images like this one on the primary article we have on hard drives.
In everyday use, the line separating main memory and auxiliary memory can become a little hazy at times. Main memory in computers normally only has a certain amount of space available (typically somewhere between 512MB and 4GB on a modern computer). When individuals have more resources available to them, they are able to process information more swiftly and complete tasks more rapidly. If a computer needs to store more information than its main memory has room for, it can temporarily relocate less important stuff from the main memory onto its hard drive in what is known as a virtual memory in order to free up some space. In this way, the computer is able to store more information. When this occurs, you will hear the hard drive clicking away at a very high pace as the computer reads and writes data between its virtual memory and its real (main) memory. This is because the computer reads and writes data back and forth between these two memory locations. Utilizing virtual memory is a technique that is significantly slower than using main memory. As a result, using virtual memory will really slow down your computer. This is because accessing hard drives takes more time than accessing memory chips. That’s basically the reason why computers with greater memory work so much more quickly.


Internal memory


Photo: The vast majority of memory chips are two-dimensional, and the transistors (electronic switches) that are used to store information are arranged in a grid on the surface of the chip. In contrast, the transistors that make up this 3D stack memory are not only organized horizontally, but also vertically; this allows for a greater quantity of data to be stored in a given volume of room. This image was provided by the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC).


The components that make up the memory found inside a computer are known as ROM and RAM, which stand for read-only memory and random access memory, respectively (read-only memory). RAM chips are used to save anything a computer is working on in the very short term because they only remember things while the computer is powered on. Because of this limitation, RAM chips are utilized for this purpose. On the other hand, ROM chips are able to remember things regardless of whether or not the power is on. They are given information at the manufacturer before being preprogrammed with it, and then they are used to store things like the computer’s BIOS, which is the basic input/output system that controls fundamental aspects of the computer like the screen and the keyboard. Do not be concerned if the terms random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM) appear to be confusing since, as we will see in a moment, their names are not the clearest in the world. Just keep in mind this important fact: the main memory found inside of a computer is built on two different kinds of chips: a temporary, volatile kind that remembers only while the power is on (RAM), and a permanent, nonvolatile kind that remembers whether the power is on or off (ROM).
The memory storage capacity of early home computers is dwarfed by that of modern devices. This table illustrates the typical amounts of random access memory (RAM) found in Apple computers, ranging from the very first Apple I computer, which was released in 1976, to the iPhone 12 smartphone, which was released more than four decades later and has approximately 500,000 times more RAM onboard! These are only some preliminary comparisons based on the assumption that one KB is equivalent to approximately one thousand bytes, one MB is equivalent to approximately one million bytes, and one GB is equivalent to approximately one billion bytes. Because in the field of computer science, one kilobyte is equal to 1024 bytes, the terms kilobyte (KB), megabyte (MB), and gigabyte (GB) might be rather confusing. Don’t worry about it; it won’t make much of a difference in the comparisons that we made earlier.


Random and sequential access


This is where things can get slightly confusing. RAM has the name random access because (in theory) it’s just as quick for the computer to read or write information from any one part of a RAM memory chip as from any other. (Incidentally, that applies just as much to most ROM chips, which you could say are examples of nonvolatile, RAM chips!) Hard drives are also, broadly speaking, random-access devices, because it takes roughly the same time to read information from any point on the drive.
Random access memory is just one type of computer memory; there are others. In the past, it was usual practice for computers to save data on separate machines referred to as tape drives, which employed lengthy spools of magnetic tape to do so (like giant-sized versions of the music cassettes in old-fashioned Sony Walkman cassette players). If the computer wanted to access information, it had to spool backward or forward through the tape until it reached exactly the spot it wanted. This was analogous to how you had to wind back and forth on a tape for a significant amount of time in order to locate the track you wanted to play. There was quite a delay while waiting for the tape to spool forward to the proper point if it was exactly at the beginning of the tape but the information the computer sought was at the very end of the tape. If the tape occurred to be located in the correct location, the computer would have almost instantaneous access to the information it was looking for. Tapes are an example of sequential access: information is stored in sequence, and the amount of time it takes to read or write a piece of information depends on where on the tape the read-write head (the magnet that reads and writes information from the tape) happens to be in relation to the tape at any given moment.



DRAM, which stands for dynamic RAM, and SRAM, which stands for static RAM, are the two primary types of RAM (static RAM). The majority of the internal memory found in personal computers, gaming consoles, and other electronic devices is made up of DRAM since it is both more affordable than SRAM and has a higher density (the ability to pack more data into a smaller space). Because of its higher cost and lower density, SRAM is more likely to be utilized in the temporary, smaller “working memories” (caches) that are a component of a computer’s internal or external memories. SRAM is also quicker than DRAM, which uses less power overall. It is also commonly employed in portable gadgets such as telephones, where it is vitally critical to minimize the amount of power consumed (and maximize the amount of time a battery can last).
The way in which DRAM and SRAM are assembled from their constituent electronic parts is what gives birth to the distinctions between the two types of memory. The dynamic random access memory (DRAM) differs from the static random access memory (SRAM) in that it requires power to be periodically sent through it in order to maintain the integrity of its memory, but the static RAM does not require “refreshing” in the same sense. Because it only requires one capacitor and one transistor to store each bit (binary digit) of information, DRAM is more dense than SRAM, which requires many transistors for each bit. This allows DRAM to store more information in the same amount of space occupied by the memory.




As is the case with RAM, read-only memory (ROM) can come in a number of distinct flavors, and contrary to popular belief, not all of these flavors are exclusively read-only. The flash memory that is used in USB memory sticks and memory cards for digital cameras is a type of ROM that can store information virtually eternally, even while the power is off (similar to traditional ROM), but it can still be reprogrammed reasonably simply anytime it is required to do so (more like conventional RAM). To talk in more technical terms, flash memory is a sort of EEPROM, which stands for electrically erasable programmable ROM. This means that information can be recorded or erased relatively easily by simply running an electric current across the memory. You could be thinking, “Hmmm, that’s an interesting thought, but doesn’t all memory work in the same manner… by flowing electricity through it?” Yes! However, the name actually alludes to the fact that erasable and reprogrammable read-only memory (ROM) used to operate in a different fashion than it does today. In the 1970s, the erasable and rewritable read-only memory (ROM) technology known as EPROM was the most widely used (erasable programmable ROM). To delete the information stored on EPROM chips, a procedure that was both laborious and inconvenient had to be used. This approach involved first disconnecting the chips from their circuit and then subjecting them to intense ultraviolet light. Imagine if you had to go through that tedious process each time you wanted to store a fresh series of images on the memory card of your digital camera. It would be a real pain.
In many modern electronic devices, such as mobile phones, modems, and wireless routers, the software is typically stored not on ROM, as one might anticipate, but rather on flash memory. This implies that you may quickly update them with new firmware (software that is stored relatively permanently in ROM), whenever an upgrade becomes available, by using a procedure that is referred to as “flashing.” If you’ve ever upgraded the firmware on your router or copied a large amount of information to a flash memory, you may have noticed that flash memory and reprogrammable ROM operate more slowly than traditional RAM memory. Additionally, it takes longer to write to these types of memories than it does to read from them.


Auxiliary memory


Hard drives, CD/DVD ROMs, and solid-state drives (SSDs), which are comparable to hard drives but store information on massive amounts of flash memory instead of spinning magnetic discs, are the most often utilized supplementary memory in current PCs.
But throughout the long and intriguing history of computers, people have utilized a wide variety of alternative memory devices, the majority of which stored information by magnetizing items. This was done in order to preserve data. Information was typically stored on floppy disks by floppy drives, which were common from roughly the late 1970s through the middle of the 1990s. These were small, thin rings of plastic coated with magnetic substance and rotating inside long-lasting plastic casings. The cases started off around 8 inches in diameter and progressively shrunk to 5.25 inches, then 3.5 inches, and finally settled at approximately 3.5 inches as the most popular size. Zip drives were very similar to conventional hard drives, but they were able to store significantly more data in a highly compressed format within bulky cartridges. During the 1970s and 1980s, microcomputers, which were the precursors to today’s personal computers, typically saved data using cassette tapes. These tapes were identical to the ones that people used at the time to play music. It may come as a surprise to learn that huge computer departments continue to make extensive use of tapes as a means for backing up data in the modern era. The primary reason for this is that the process is both straightforward and low-cost. It doesn’t matter if tapes run slowly and sequentially while you’re using them for backups since in most cases, you want to replicate and restore your data in a very systematic way—and time isn’t always all that crucial in these situations.

Moving even further back in time, computers from the 1950s and 1960s recorded information on magnetic cores, which were small rings made from ferromagnetic and ceramic material. Even earlier machines stored information using relays, which are switches like the ones used in telephone circuits, and vacuum tubes (a bit like miniature versions of the cathode-ray tubes used in old-style televisions).
Digits, or numbers, are the primary form of information storage and processing in computers. This applies to all types of data, including images, videos, text files, and sound. This is the reason why some people refer to them as digital computers. Work with numbers in the decimal system (base 10) is most comfortable for humans (with ten different digits ranging from 0 through 9). On the other hand, computers use a whole other number system known as binary, which consists of just two numbers—zero (0) and one (1)—to perform their calculations (1). In the decimal system, the columns of numbers correspond to ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, and so on as you walk to the left; however, in the binary system, the identical columns represent powers of two. In the decimal system, you step to the left to go from one to 10. (two, four, eight, sixteen, thirty two, sixty four, and so on). Therefore, the decimal number 55 is converted to binary as 110111, which is equal to 32 plus 16 plus 4 plus 2 plus 1. When you want to save a number, you’ll need a lot more binary digits, which are also called bits. You are able to store any decimal value from 0 to 255 with eight bits, which is commonly referred to as a byte. This corresponds to the binary range of 00000000 to 11111111.
People have 10 fingers, which lends itself well to the representation of decimal numbers. There are only eight fingers on a computer. Instead, they use something called transistors, which are electronic switches that can number in the thousands, millions, or even billions. When electric currents move through transistors and turn them on and off, the numbers that are stored in those transistors are binary. When a transistor is turned on, it stores a one; when it is turned off, it stores a zero. A computer’s memory is able to store decimal numbers by turning off a complete series of transistors in a binary pattern, much like someone would do by holding up a series of flags. This allows the computer to store decimal numbers. The number 55 can be conceptualized as following the pattern of holding up five flags while lowering one of them:

Artwork: The number 55 in decimal corresponds to the binary representation of (1/32), (1/16), 0/8, 1/4, 1/2, and 1/1, which is 110111. Although there are no flags contained within a computer, it is nonetheless able to remember the number 55 by using six transistors that are toggled on and off in the same manner.
Therefore, storing numerical values is simple. But how is it possible to do mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division utilizing only electric currents? You will need to make use of these smart circuits known as logic gates, which you can learn more about by reading our article on logic gates.


A brief history of computer memory


Artwork: IBM’s original hard drive from its 1954/1964 patent. You can see the multiple spinning discs, highlighted in red, in the large memory unit on the right. Artwork from US Patent 3,134,097: Data storage machine by Louis D. Stevens et al, IBM, courtesy of US Patent and Trademark Office.
Here are just a few selected milestones in the development of computer memory; for the bigger picture, please check out our detailed article on the history of computers.
1804: Joseph Marie Jacquard uses cards with holes punched into them to control textile-weaving looms. Punched cards, as they’re known, survive as an important form of computer memory until the early 1970s.
1835: Joseph Henry invents the relay, an electromagnetic switch used as a memory in many early computers before transistors are developed in the mid-20th century.
19th century: Charles Babbage sketches plans for elaborate, gear-driven computers with built-in, mechanical memories.
1947: Three US physicists, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, develop the transistor—the tiny switching device that forms the heart of most modern computer memories.
1949: An Wang files a patent for magnetic core memory.
1950s: Reynold B. Johnson of IBM invents the hard drive, announced to the public on September 4, 1956.
1967: IBM’s Warren Dalziel develops the floppy drive.
1960s: James T. Russell invents the optical CD-ROM while working for Battelle Memorial Institute.
1968: Robert Dennard of IBM is granted a patent for DRAM memory.
1981: Toshiba engineers Fujio Masuoka and Hisakazu Iizuka file a patent for flash memory.

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Best 29-Inch Monitors

How To Bridge An Amp

Bridging means to combine two (or four) channels of an amplifier into one (or two) channels with twice the voltage. For example, you can turn a two-channel amp into one channel and a four-channel amp into two channels.

“Bridging” or “bridge mode” is a feature that is found in most car amplifiers. With this feature, two similar channels can be combined to make a single channel (mono amp) with a high output power.

For bridging, the negative signal from one channel is added to the positive signal from the other channel. This doubles the amount of power each channel could put out through a 2-ohm load by itself ( the maximum wattage the amp can produce). So, bridging increases the power potential of your system. This adds the power needed to run one loudspeaker without making the amp’s total power higher.

Do you need a new or better sound system for your car? If you want to know how to connect it and need to bridge an amplifier, you probably need to. A Monoblock amplifier, on the other hand, can’t be bridged. This is because bridging combines two or more channels, while a Monoblock only has one channel. Most of the time, two channels are bridged to power one subwoofer, and four channels are bridged to power two subwoofers.

To bridge an amplifier, you will need channels that are not the same. Technically, to bridge an amp, you need a low source impedance to drive a high load impedance so that you can transfer the most voltage.

First, you need to know and watch out for a few things to see if you can bridge an amp. Keep in mind that amps that can be bridged have a channel that is inverted so that they can be bridged. The voltage from the inverted channel is used in the opposite way as the voltage from the regular, unbridged channel.

Second, you should watch out for a few things before you bridge your amplifier: Bridge only an amplifier that can handle the extra power. This is because when a river is bridged, it makes almost four times as much power as when it is not bridged. Also, you shouldn’t bridge an amp if the speakers can’t handle the extra power. Keeping this in mind, buy an amplifier like the BOSS Audio Systems AR1600, which has four channels and can be bridged to work with high-output speakers.

Also, don’t let your amplifier run below its minimum stated impedance. An amp’s impedance is already cut in half, so if this happens or if the amp isn’t made for it, the amp could overheat. Also, don’t connect an amp that is already connected.

Lastly, before you bridge, you should always look at your amp’s guide and pictures. It will make it simple for you to figure out what to do.

How to bridge an amplifier: A multi-channel amp has low bridged stability that is higher than the minimum impedance from one of its channels. For instance, a four-channel amplifier with a stable impedance of 2 ohms per channel would have a minimum impedance of 4 ohms when bridged. But the truth is that most amplifiers are only stable when bridged with a 4ohm load.

When you bridge an amp, you save money, space, and power at low frequencies because they both use the same power source and don’t need a DC-blocking capacitor.

But there are also problems with building bridges. Because the impedance is lower, the amplifier might not be able to send the right amount of current. This can make the mids sound harsher and increase the chances of distortion. Make sure you have high-quality gear to avoid this. Some amplifiers work well both bridged and in monoblock mode. This also makes a big difference in the quality. To get the most out of your amplifier, you should use a Car Amplifier Wiring Kit like the BOSS Audio Systems KIT2. This makes your connection better and helps your car speakers, woofers, or radio produce better sound.

How to connect two channels on an amplifier

Know how your amp is set up.

You should see four terminals on your two-channel amp: a positive (+) and a negative (-) on channel 1, and a positive (+) and a negative (-) on channel two.

Channel 1

A is good, and B is not good.

Channel 2


A is good, and B is not good.

Join the amplifier to a single speaker.

  • Connect the positive speaker lead to terminal A (positive for channel 1) and the negative speaker lead to terminal B. These wires come from the speaker (negative for channel 2)
  • Take off the screws on that terminal and connect these wires. Put the wires between the top and bottom parts of the terminal. Then, tighten the screw to keep the wires in place.
  • A plastic coating will be put on the wires from the speaker to protect them. To connect the wire to the terminals, you will need to use wire strippers to remove less than an inch of insulation from the wire.
  • This connection joins the power from the two separate channels, giving you twice as much power as you had before.
  • How to connect a four-channel amp.

Know how your amp is set up.

Like with the two-channel amp, you should first find out if your four-channel amp can be bridged. Watch out for all the warnings and, most importantly, follow the instructions and diagrams in the manual that came with your amp.

After that, learn how the amp is set up. The amp has eight terminals, two on each of the four channels.

So, let’s say that in:


Channel 1

A is good, and B is bad.

Channel 2

C is good, while D is bad.

Channel 3

E is good, and F is bad.

Channel 4

G is good, and H is bad.

Hook the amplifier up to the first speaker.

The wires coming from the speakers connect the positive lead to terminal A (the positive on the first channel) and the negative lead to terminal D. (the negative on the second channel).

Next, remove the screw on the terminal and connect these speaker wires to the amp. The wire will be attached to it. Put the wire between the top and bottom of the terminal and tighten the screw to keep the wire in place. After the cables are correctly attached, the first speaker is now hooked up to the amp.

Hook the amplifier up to the second speaker

Like the first method, connect the wires from the second speaker to terminal E (the positive on channel 3) and the wires from the second speaker to terminal H (the negative on channel 3). (the negative on channel 4). Then, connect the wires from the speakers to the amp. This makes it have more power.

In the end, bridging can be good for your audio system in some situations, but not in others. Even if your amp doesn’t have bridging, that doesn’t mean it is useless. You can look for an older electronic crossover or a cheap crossover that has a bridge or monoblock setting. Make sure that the phase of each channel can be changed on the old crossover. Next, you will need to set one of the two channels so that it is 180 degrees out of phase. This will make it look like an amplifier is being bridged. If you’re afraid of doing the bridging yourself, you can always ask a professional for help.


How to loosen trucks on a skateboard?

It is important that your skateboard trucks be both tight enough so that you can easily control the board and loose enough so that you can control the board easily. If you’re experiencing wheel bite, you may want to consider some solutions for resolving the problem, such as tightening your trucks. However, if you are not suffering from wheel bite, it is likely that you will be able to loosen your trucks. When skating about, your trucks should be loose enough that you don’t have to tic-tac your way over obstacles.

Skateboard trucks may be adjusted to be either tight or loose, depending on the rider’s personal preferences. Accordingly, they should be tight enough to prevent kingpin disengagement but free enough to prevent the bushings from rupturing during operation. In addition, there isn’t a set of guidelines that must be followed.

For skaters who like to ride on the streets or in skateparks, you should tighten the screws to increase the amount of stability they give. Those who like cruising will want them to be somewhat loose so that they can turn more easily. When it comes to vertical skating, you’ll want them somewhere in the center.

How to Tighten Skateboard Trucks 

To tighten or loosen the trucks on your skateboard, you will only need two items: your skateboard and a skate tool, which will be discussed later. The use of them will allow you to swiftly make modifications to your trucks and be back on the board in no time, and they are really simple to use.

Grip your skateboard and turn it over so that you can grab both wheels with each hand, then continue. Your fingers should be completely wrapped around the grip tape. Applying pressure to one wheel of the trucks and then the other is a good way to test them. The level to which the wheels will tilt will be determined by how close your vehicles are packed together.

To tighten or loosen the nut (also known as a kingpin) at the middle of the truck, use your skate tool to turn it. The kingpin is responsible for controlling the tightness of your trucks on its own. Twisting the kingpin in a clockwise direction will tighten the trucks while turning it in a counter-clockwise direction will loosen the trucks. Make careful to tighten in tiny increments, test, and then tighten or loosen as needed until the desired result is achieved.

Go ahead and put your board through its paces. You can do this in your home, but stepping outside and testing your board on the street will provide much more benefits.

Bring your skate tool with you on your first few rides to get a feel for it. You have the ability to make changes as required.

Tight Trucks Have Both Advantages and Disadvantages

If you like doing flip stunts, you may want to consider tightening the bolts on your trucks. When landing your tricks, you will have better stability as a result of this.

Thick trucks provide the following advantages: • Increased balance and stability while landing stunts and driving at greater speeds

  • There is no wheel bite, therefore there is less likelihood of experiencing speed wobbles.

Cons of tight trucks: • You can’t turn or carve properly unless you raise your front wheels off the ground.

  • If a bushing is overtightened, it might cause it to blow out.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Loose Trucks

As previously said, loose skateboard trucks are most suited for people who prefer cruising while still having the ability to turn as much as possible. Even yet, they’re quite tough to land tricks on because of their size.

The advantages of loose trucks are as follows:

  • Improved turning ability without the need to elevate the front wheels
  • Has the ability to carve

The disadvantages of unsecured trucks are as follows:

  • Can cause wheel bite (unless you use riser pads) • Makes landing flip tricks more difficult • Makes skating more difficult for beginners

Is it possible to overtighten your skateboard trucks?

It is possible to blow out the bushings on your trucks if you continue to tighten your trucks. When it comes to tightening your vehicles, you should proceed with caution. Unless they are exceedingly loose, take it gently and perform a half rotation at a time until they are tight.

Bushings are available in a variety of softnesses and hardnesses as well. The softer the bushings, the looser the trucks will feel, and the stiffer the bushings, the tighter the trucks will feel, according to the manufacturer.

Having said that, certain bushings will need some breaking in. Therefore, it is critical to have your skate tool in your possession as much as you can at all times. As your bushings and trucks wear down, you may make minor tweaks to ensure that your skate style remains consistent.

It’s important to understand that overtightening your trucks might cause bushings to fail.

In order to provide the sensation of loose trucks, soft bushings should be used in conjunction with appropriate truck adjustments. If you like the sensation of tight trucks, get hard bushings and adjust the trucks’ tightness or looseness until it feels just right. You will avoid blowing up your bushings in this manner.

Should the trucks on my skateboards be tight or loose?

It goes without saying that if you plan on cruising, you’ll want soft bushings and looser trucks. It’s possible to ride vert with soft bushings and tight trucks, or firm bushings and loose trucks, depending on your preferences. Alternatively, if you want to ride on the street and at the skatepark, you’ll want stiffer bushings and tighter trucks.

All of that being said, you must choose what works best for you on a personal level. Skate about for a time, make a few tweaks, and then keep skating. You’ll discover the sweet spot eventually.

One more suggestion: if you’re a skater who has trouble finding bushings that are soft enough for you, consider purchasing a set of Bones soft bushings to supplement your collection. You’ll want to put them in boiling water for a few minutes before removing them from the heat. Allow it to soak in the hot water for about 10 minutes. They’ll be softer than they’ve ever been. It’s possible that you’ll want to tighten your trucks a little bit at this stage.

Electric Skateboards And Speed Wobbles. How To Deal With Them!

Every skateboarder has had a speed wobble, whether they use an electric board or not.

In fact, if you push a board too hard, it will speed wobble. It’s simple physics…

Not only is wobbling scary, but it can also cause you to fall and hurt yourself.

You’re here because of that! (To make sure that doesn’t happen!)

How to Keep Speed from Wobbling

Make things better!

Loose bearings, trunks, and wheels are often the cause of speed wobbles…

When something is loose, it starts to move and shake. Too much jiggle is no good!

And as you go faster, things start to shake more. This is the cause of the speed wobble.

Simple maintenance is all you need to do to stop this from happening in the first place.

By pulling yourself together, you could avoid a bad fall and injury.

Make things easier!

Too loose is not good, and too tight is not good either. We’re trying to stay away from both ends of the spectrum. Surprisingly, if the hardware on your board is too tight and stiff, it could make you wobble.

So how can you tell if the nuts, wheels, trucks, and other parts of your board are too tight?

  1. If you put your heart and soul into putting the pieces together, it’s too tight. (Always tighten things until you can’t tighten them any more, but when you reach that point, STOP!)
  2. If you touch your trunks and they don’t move, bend, or do anything else, they are too tight.

Loosen up those dogs. The key is to find a good balance!

Fix Your Form

If you put most of your weight on your back leg when you ride, I’m afraid I have to tell you that you’re doing it wrong…

When the weight is in the back, there is less contact between the front and the ground. When you start to go faster, the front will start to move around on its own.

Your weight should be on the front of the board… After all, you steer with the front. Like a car, you can’t steer with the back wheels.

You should also bend your knees, find a lower stance, relax, and figure out where your center of gravity is. Try this the next time, and you’ll see a big change.

Ride More/Build Ankle Strength

Speed wobbles are caused, at least in part, by lack of riding experience.

Beginners are much more likely to rock back and forth because of one thing: their ankles.

It’s kinda like ice skating. When you go ice skating for the first few times, your ankles aren’t very stable or strong. This is why almost every beginner keeps falling, can’t find their balance, and keeps failing.

The same is true when you ride your e-board.

When you ride for the first few times, you won’t know how to keep your balance. During and after your ride, your ankles and feet will hurt. But as you get more experience, your ankles will feel better and you won’t wobble as much.

Don’t worry, because it will get better over time.

Update the software on your boards…

If your e-board has an app you can download to your phone, make sure you keep the board’s firmware up to date.

Keeping your board’s computer up-to-date will not only make it run better, but it will also fix any bugs that may be giving you trouble.

It won’t fix those annoying speed wobbles for sure, but it’s worth a shot!

Stop going so fast!

Yes, there isn’t always a better way to say it…

“Speed wobbles on skateboards are just a part of life, like taxes on your paycheck.”

And sometimes the only way to keep them from happening is to not go that fast in the first place.

As soon as you feel the car start to shake, back off a bit and lightly pump the brakes. Guys, use your brains.

If you go over the speed limit, you are putting yourself in danger. Even more so when using electric skateboards!

Since the top speed of a regular skateboard depends on how fast you push it, it is harder to wobble.

But electric skateboards are powered by motors, and the faster ones can go as fast as 30 mph or more. That’s a good way to get lost and end up in hell.

Watch out for hills

It’s never hard to go uphill.

Downhill can be…

Going down a hill can cause a huge buildup of speed. Electric skateboards have brakes, so make sure to pump them slowly so you don’t hit top speed and speed wobble like crazy.

Final Verdict

Speed wobbles are a pain.

But you don’t have to stop riding because of them.

Sometimes you have to go through bad things to be able to enjoy the good ones. Skateboarding and everything else in life are the same.

If you do the things I listed above, I can guarantee that your speed will change less.

Be safe and keep on riding!


How do you adjust a self propelled lawn mower?

Overgrown grass makes your garden look unkempt, which is upsetting. Every homeowner’s dream is to have a beautiful backyard. When it comes to the ease and convenience of mowing one’s lawn, self-propelled lawnmower models are the most popular because of their basic mechanics and easy-to-use functionality.
To get the most out of your self-propelled lawn mower, you need to be aware of a number of considerations. One of these is being familiar with the various controls for adjusting the mower’s speed. A large percentage of people who possess self-propelled lawn mowers are unable to answer questions about their machines. Self-Propelled Lawn Mower: How Do You Change the Speed? Please, don’t be one of them!

Do you Face Difficulty in Adjusting the Speed of your Self-Propelled Lawn Mower?

This is a concern, and it may appear difficult if you are a novice. However, the truth is that it isn’t that big of an issue. Mowers that propel themselves are better for the environment. This machine has the advantage of giving the owner complete control over all of the machine’s functions. However, you’ll need to spend some time learning how to control the mower’s speed.
The Process

If you know what you’re doing, using a lawn mower shouldn’t be too tough. It’s all about the speed. The mower’s speed is what gives you complete control.
Keep the Lawn Mower on an Even Surface

Before adjusting the speed of your lawn mower, make sure it is on a level area. This will make it easier for you to operate your mower.
Move the Mower Throttle Lever and Keep it in the Choke Position

The mower’s throttle lever should be in the choke position at all times. When the mower is running, avoid pushing the lever. Instead, let the engine to cool down for a few minutes.

Pull the Starter Cord of the Lawn Mower

You can now start the mower by pulling the starter cord or rotating the ignition key switch.
Move the Throttle Lever and Keep It In The Fast Position

When the mower’s engine starts to warm up, move the throttle lever to the fast position. Your mower is now ready to mow once you complete the following steps. The mower blade will spin quickly if the throttle lever is in the fast setting. You’ll be able to get the most grass cut per minute this way.
Adjust The Speed of The Mower Blade

Your mower’s handlebars have a side panel that you may inspect. There’s a yellow button there you can click on. The speed of the blade can be controlled by pressing this yellow button. Start the blade spinning by pressing it forward. When the yellow button is pressed toward you, the mower blade will come to a complete stop.

Push the Drive Clutch Lever

Turn the mower’s drive clutch lever all the way up and watch it take off. To fine-tune the lawnmower’s speed, slightly advance the mower drive clutch. Your driving clutch determines the movement of the mower.
The only thing you need to do to stop the lawn mower is to remove the drive clutch. Stopping the blade from spinning and putting a quiet stop to the throttle will be achieved by doing this. You can then turn off the mower’s engine.


Combustion engines are common in self-propelled lawn mowers. This type of engine requires a liquid form of fuel to operate. Clogging is a major problem with these kinds of engines. The mower’s performance suffers as it becomes clogged. If the mower is clogged and you try to alter the speed, it will not do it correctly.
If you want the mower to go quicker, but the engine slows down or shuts off, this is another possibility. This is all due to clogging again. Adjusting the speed will be much easier if you fix the clogging problem.
Fuel Blend

Each fuel supplier will use a unique mixture of fuels to meet their customers’ needs. Octane or maize, alcohol and gasoline mix could be used as fuel. Using a mix decreases environmental effect while also saving money. However, the disadvantage is that it has an effect on smaller engines.
You should examine the fuel system if you notice a problem with mower speed. Perhaps the mixture isn’t the greatest for your mower. As a result, adjusting the mower’s speed may be difficult.
Drive Loss

If the mower’s motion drive belt fails, the battery or air gets stuck in its transmission, and you can’t change its speed because of it. The mower won’t operate if the battery is low and you’re still trying to get it to work quickly.
In addition, look for signs of wear and tear. Once it’s fixed, you’ll be able to change the mower’s speed once more.


To get the work done correctly, you must be able to control the speed of your self-propelled mower. Mower speed is greatly influenced by the aforementioned factors. The self-propelled mower’s speed can be easily controlled if you understand these concepts.

See more : electricproductsreview

TV Mounted Too High (FIXES)

Having a TV in front of you If something is mounted too high, it can be hard to see, especially if you have to crane your neck. This can not only make it hard to watch, but it can also hurt your body after a while. So, this article will answer the question, “How high should you mount your TV?” How can you change a TV that is too high?

Most people have also said that adjusting a TV mounted too high without help from a professional is difficult. So, this article can help you whether you’re just taking your new TV out of the box or you’ve already put it up.

For Whom Is This?

Anyone who has a TV with a flat screen. After all, that’s the kind of TV you hang on the wall. The most important thing you can do with your flat-screen TV is to get the best movie experience possible.

This article can also help if your TV was mounted too low and you tried to raise it a few inches before realizing that it was now too high. In some cases, you may want to put your TV a few inches higher than your soundbar, but the TV is already mounted too high. Now that we know that, let’s go ahead and learn!

How Can You Tell If the TV is Too High?

As simple as it may sound to hang a TV on the wall, there are a few technical and scientific ways to do it. Technically, a simple example of the scientific way of looking at it is how your TV is mounted and how you sit in front of it.

This means that “the TV seems higher the closer your seat is to it.” But what if your seat is good? How do you know if the TV is too high?

Here are some easy ways to tell if you need to change how the TV is mounted.

  • Once you start to raise your head without realizing it, you won’t be able to enjoy TV. Most likely, your TV is mounted too high.
  • You might not always remember what was going through your mind when you were watching TV, but here’s a quick one. If you have a sharp pain in the back of your neck or a sore eye after watching TV, it’s too high.

If you think either or both of these things have happened to you before, you might need to adjust your TV. This is mostly because of two important things:

  1. To avoid health problems, especially ones that could hurt the spine or back muscles
  2. To make it easier for you to watch.

How high do you want your TV to be?

While you are sitting at a safe distance, this position should be slightly above your normal eye level and at an angle.

Here’s how to figure things out using the scientific method we talked about earlier. On average, the eye height of the tallest woman when she is sitting is about 23 inches. Also, the average seat height is about 19 inches.

So, a good way to figure out how high to mount a TV is to add these two numbers together, which gives you a height of about 42 inches from the floor.

Well, you can use a number of other things to figure out the right mounting height. This consists of

  • Viewing distance
  • Using an old Mount
  • TV size
  • Using a recliner

Let’s talk about each of these.

Viewing Distance

When you mount a TV on the wall, this is one of the most difficult things to think about. This is because you have to pay attention to how the room is set up and how people are sitting.

If seats are spread out far from each other, everyone could have a different experience watching the show. Other things, like how wide the room is, how close you are to the wall, how bright the light is, what’s in the room, etc., can help you choose a better spot.

Using a Previous Mount

If there is an old mount on the wall, it may be one of the hardest things to do when mounting a TV. The first problem is that the mount might not be right for the size of your TV or the way your room is set up.

But this can be hard because putting a new TV mount on the wall could be just as dangerous as using the old one. In this case, you can either use a TV stand or get help from a professional.

Learn more about how to reuse a TV wall mount by reading our guide.

TV Size

When you think about how high your TV should be, its size can affect a lot of things and decide even more.

This is because the height of a 32-inch TV might be different from that of a 49-inch TV in the same room. Also, the size of the TV is the only way to figure out how high it needs to be based on the viewing distance.

But as a general rule, bigger TVs should be mounted higher than smaller ones. Even though most big TVs will eventually take up more square space, they might still be good for watching.

How to Use a Recliner

There is no one way to mount a TV so that it can be used with a recliner. This is because it should just be set up in a way that makes you feel comfortable.

Make sure it is in a place where you can watch TV without having to strain your neck or eyes.

What to do if your TV is too high

This problem can be fixed in three easy ways.

1.Adjust your sitting position. This is the easiest way to fix a high-mounted TV, especially if the room is big enough. Just move the seat back to make the distance and height equal.

2.Tilt it downward. Most common mounts that can be moved can also be tilted. If you’re using one of these types of mounts, then you’re in luck.

3.Reinstall the mount. Take off the mount and move it again.

How to Lower a TV Without a Moveable Mount

It can be hard to adjust a TV on a mount that doesn’t move. You might need to hire a pro to help you fix the problem, but if you like to do things yourself, here’s a simple way to do it.

  • Unplug the TV and take out any cables that can be taken out.
  • Unlatch the tv from the mount, and then unscrew the mount from the wall.
  • Check to see where the TV will look best, then screw the mount to this new spot. Then put the TV back on its mount and lock it.


With the tips in this article, you can now watch your mounted TV better without putting strain on your eyes or neck. Also, you can be sure that your TV is in the best place, and if it is too high, you can easily move it without having to pay a professional to do it.


Is An HDR Gaming Monitor Worth It?


Gamers and developers alike have found a solid footing in today’s world of gaming. A high-tech approach is looking for a durable and well-performing system.

In addition, this high-end content improvement technology is mostly needed by game producers rather than the common internet user who only peruses random content.

As a result, the FreeSync and G-sync craze has spurred on even more creative solutions. The question of whether an HDR gaming display is worth it is evident in the presence of such mind-blowing qualities.

HDR is the cherry on top if you’re going to be using your monitor to its best potential. Fast-paced games necessitate exact visuals and color fidelity from the display’s FPS, refresh rate, response time, and other parameters.

However, it’s crucial to keep in mind that not all high dynamic range monitors will produce the same results. Some may shine, while others may not be able to live up to the hype. Every display is unique in terms of its design and functionality.

As a result, having an HDR monitor is undoubtedly the most pressing issue of the day. Let’s get some additional information and see if we can locate the answer!

Gaming Monitor with High Dynamic Range

The primary function of an HDR monitor is to ensure a more expansive and accurate color spectrum, followed by a higher level of contrast. HDR monitors have emerged as the leading technology for its improved color accuracy and more lifelike visual appearance.

The game experience, on the other hand, is worth every cent and every performance. Playing fast-paced games involving the frame with minute size speed, you certainly don’t want to compromise on the aesthetics to miss exactly what hue or tone the frame was originally supposed to be.

If you’re a fan of high dynamic range (HDR) graphics, an HDR gaming monitor is a must-have for your gaming setup. HDR technology is compatible with many of the most latest and fashionable monitors. In addition, the mid-range middle range can be supported.

IPS, Nano IPS, IGZO, and VA are just a few of the panels available for use in display technologies. For now, HDR isn’t compatible with TN display panels (who knows the evaluation in technology), and many games aren’t pre-designed to support HDR technology.

In order to understand HDR, we need to know how it works.

You might be wondering about its insights with all of its excellent performance and high-quality output. Furthermore, a preference for it over a higher display resolution has always been associated with this technology. However, what is the truth?

The HDR display was able to produce an image that was more vibrant, detailed, and illuminated from all angles. Light and dark regions of the game, as well as the frame of the game, are given the necessary illumination.

Because of this, the entire look was precisely balanced. It is possible to encounter the genuine approach due to the close relation of colors without any blankness. High dynamic range signals are simply accepted by the monitor or display screen with HDR functionality, which enhances and boosts the image quality immediately.

Colors that have the best contrast ratio, color spectrum, brightness apex, and lightning effect are all included when we talk about image quality. Finally, when everything works together, you end up with something truly beautiful in the picture or display frame. HDR has made an appearance in games.

But it is not a given that HDR monitors will all display the same manner in terms of their viewing angles. There is a lot to consider when it comes to the monitor’s appearance, quality, and more. Some may provide you with an outstanding production, while others may provide you with a compromise quality that makes you chuckle uncontrollably.

Formats for High Dynamic Range

HDR10 isn’t the only HDR format out there. The HDR10 format is generally required for gaming, however other formats are also available. In addition to being the most prevalent, it is also highly sought after by people, particularly game makers and avid gamers. There are, however, a total of five types or versions of HDR:

  1.     HDR10
  2.     HDR10+
  3.     HLG
  4.     Dolby Vision
  5.     Advanced HDR by Technicolor

HDR, which is the most durable and sought-after, is in use and providing the finest experience for games and other applications. Users can rely on its open standards and smooth operation. HDR10 is, in fact, the greatest format if you’re interested in high-quality visuals and work that requires an accurate presentation.

A HDR Monitor’s Requirements and Specifications

Money isn’t the only thing you’ll need to get a high-quality gaming display with HDR technology. As many features as there are, make sure that the setups are all in sync so that the overall game play is more powerful and aggressive.


Furthermore, HDR monitors do not rely on heavy-duty graphics processing units for their performance (GPU). With a GTX 950 or higher system, you may enjoy HDR display in all its majesty and majesty! Aside from that, HDR will be supported by AMD GPUs equipped with the R9 380 card. If you’re concerned about setting up HDR on your monitor, another consideration is the port.


HDMI 2.0 or above and DisplayPort 1.4 enable HDR, regardless of whether you’re using a VA or IPS display screen.. HDR10 must be supported by the display. High dynamic range displays aren’t supported by TN penal.

Ace and high-end software are the best options for gaming. They unquestionably contribute to a more notable approach. No matter if you have a conventional slim PlayStation 4 or a Pro, you can rest assured that HDR is supported and runs well. Additionally, the Xbox One is compatible with high dynamic range (HDR) monitors.

HDR in Windows 10 can be enabled.

The basic methods for enabling HDR support on your monitor may be found here. Monitor compatibility and support for this technology are the first requirements.

  1. Select Settings from the Start menu, then select System and Display.
  2. The HDR feature can only be enabled on a single display if you have several monitors.
  3. In order to use the feature, you must now select “True” in the box underneath the Window HD color.


Is it possible to tell the difference between a true HDR and a fake one?

Buying HDR is not enough when you’re at the store. The actual deal is to be aware of its true quality and construction. With the advancement of technology, it is now possible to quickly identify counterfeits and clones of both original products and technologies. As a result, you should verify that the product you’re purchasing is authentic.

So, what exactly does a bogus HDR accomplish? Even though it renders and accepts HDR, it is unable to improve its picture quality in the way that an HDR monitor is supposed to.

False quality is recognized when there is no peak brightness like display-HDR 400, which does not produce it. If you’ve been using the actual HDR in the past, you’ll see the difference right away. Fake ones should be avoided at all costs!

Is it a good idea to enable HDR on my monitor?

It’s great to hear that you’re able to do whatever you want with your high-end and reliable equipment. Then again, if you can just click to go to the technology, why not use it? However, having an HDR-capable monitor does suggest that you should always keep this function activated, so long as you have it.

HDR should only be used when watching related content, according to the experts. It’s also worth noting that enabling HDR before playing HDR video can instantly boost the color, contrast, and brightness of the images. If you keep HDR enabled, though, it won’t be of any benefit.


High dynamic range (HDR) is a fantastic technology that is especially intended to improve color and contrast reception techniques. Brightness and a lighting effect enhance the realism and vibrancy of the image and frame when playing the most advanced and complex games.

In order to get the most out of a high dynamic range monitor, you’ll need to consider the hardware and software requirements. As long as HDR isn’t properly supported in terms of setups, this HDR technology for better gaming won’t be worthwhile because it doesn’t support TN displays


What Is Convection In Microwave?

Convection In Microwave.

Convection microwaves combine traditional microwave technology with an additional heating element and fan, enabling you to bake, roast, crisp, and reheat food quickly. In compact settings, such as RVs, a convection microwave may double as second oven or even function as the primary oven.

What is the purpose of the microwave’s convection mode?

Food may be cooked in Convection Mode in the same manner it would be in a standard oven. There is no usage of the microwave mode. You can adjust the temperature in eight preset ranges ranging from 40 to 250 degrees Celsius. Cooking time is limited to 60 minutes.

Is it true that a convection microwave is better?

Convection microwaves cook more evenly than ordinary microwaves because of the fan that circulates the air. And, once again, they brown better.

Can we bake using convection in the microwave?

The simple answer is that your microwave may be used as an oven. You will, however, need a convection oven to do this. Convection ovens function like ordinary ovens and may be used to create bread, cakes, cookies, or anything else you’d want to bake.

What is the difference between a microwave and a convection oven?

A convection oven warms food to greater temperatures from the outside than a microwave oven. A convection microwave is ideal for grilling, baking, roasting, browning, and crisping dishes, while a microwave oven is ideal for even reheating, cooking, and defrosting.

Is it possible to make pizza in a convection microwave?

Making Convection-Style Pizza in the Microwave By selecting the oven or microwave option, you may use a convection microwave just like a regular oven or microwave. Preheat your convection microwave and place the pizza on the rack that comes with it. To bake it, don’t use a cookie sheet or a pan.

What is the finest brand of convection microwave oven?

In India, the best convection microwave oven for household use is Godrej 19 L Convection Microwave Oven. AmazonBasics 23 L Convection Microwave Oven. IFB 23 L Convection Microwave Oven. Microwave with a capacity of 23 liters. LG 21 L Convection Microwave Oven, LG 32 L Convection Microwave Oven, IFB 20 L Convection Microwave Oven, IFB 20 L Convection Microwave Oven, IFB 20 L Convection Microwave Oven, IFB 20 L Convection Microwave Oven, IFB 20 L Con

In a microwave convection oven, what can you cook?

You can use your microwave to roast a whole chicken and then make angel food cake for dessert if you utilize convection microwave cooking. Green bean casserole may be prepared while the turkey is roasting in the main oven. Bake cookies in a metal skillet (when using convection-only cycles) On a rack, crisp and golden pizza.

Can you use a convection microwave oven to cook metal?

In a microwave, metal cookware should not be used. Because metal prevents microwaves from penetrating the food, any food behind it will not be cooked. With the convection cooking capability of a microwave convection oven, metal and foil may be utilized safely and efficiently.

I don’t have a convection oven, so how can I bake a cake in the microwave?

If you have a microwave with the convection mode on, the temperature at which you bake a cake is 180 degrees Celcius. However, if your microwave does not have a convection mode at that time, you must set the power to 100%, or power level 10.

Which utensils may be used in a microwave with convection?

Utensils constructed of glass, silicon, and metal may be used in the convection mode. Plastic, paper, and wood utensils should not be used.

Does a microwave utilize convection or radiation conduction?

Microwave radiation uses brief, high-frequency waves to stir the water molecules in food, causing friction and heat transmission. When you heat a solid item, the heat energy is delivered by conduction, while liquids are heated through convection.

What is the difference between a solo microwave and a microwave with convection?

A solitary microwave oven can provide for most people’s basic microwave requirements, but it lacks unique capabilities. In a single microwave, you can only use microwave-safe glass or plastic.

Should you cook pizza on convection?

Convection microwave ovens contain a fan and a heating element that produce airflow patterns within the microwave oven.

Pizzas, pies, cookies, and bread all turn out beautifully when cooked in convection mode. Those that need more time to rise slowly and remain fluffy and moist, on the other hand, are often not as excellent to cook in a convection oven. This is because it may alter the dough’s rise.

If you want to find more information, please see here.

Should you normalize audio

The term “normalization” is tossed about a lot in the music business. If you’ve ever heard it, you’ll know that it’s related to the volume of the sound.

Producers and performers are always at odds about how loud a song should sound. When listened to over a pair of speakers, artists always want their music to be louder than their competition. As a result, the whole industry has begun to strive for more volume.

When it comes to making music loud, normalization is seldom the first thing that comes to mind when it comes to different kinds of music.

The only thing they speak about when they talk about loudness is limitation. Normalization, on the other hand, may be a fantastic instrument for perfecting a track and pushing it to its maximum limit.

There are occasions when the normalizing procedure is called into question since it might cause noise and distortion. Finding the spots where normalization is most needed and removing the other standard mixing strategies, which will be covered in more depth later in this article, is the ideal way to employ it.

When it comes to mixing a song, you should certainly normalize your audio. This pushes the music’s loudness and makes it constant by increasing the ideal level throughout the song. Remember that after normalization, you should not apply limiting to your music because this may cause distortion.

Knowing what normalization is and how to use it as an effect to better your songs is one thing, but understanding how it works and how to utilize it as an effect can lead to you utilizing it much more in your music production endeavors.

In this post, I’ll show you how normalizing is utilized in the audio production industry and how you may use it to your benefit. Let’s get this party started.


What is the definition of normalization?

Normalization is a technique for increasing the volume of any audio to a preset maximum without clipping. W


hen you normalize audio, your program will look for a peak level in the file and shift it to the set maximum level.

Clipping is the worst enemy of music producers and audio engineers. This is due to the fact that clipping removes the song’s true substance and detail.

When it comes to perfecting a music, normalization is one of the most fundamental methods to learn. It’s one of the oldest methods for increasing the volume and clarity of a music on any speaker system. Then there are new approaches like limiting and clipping to consider.

In today’s environment, limiters and clippers are widely employed, whereas normalization is becoming less popular.

People are mixing and mastering their tracks with digital tools. Over the last 20 years, the use of hardware normalization has also begun to decline.

One of the reasons why people don’t employ normalization is because the music can’t be pushed too much. Normalization entails not even a slight cutting of the song, but rather making it sound loud. When you need particularly loud noises, this method is unsuccessful.

This is why, in today’s music production environment, limiting is chosen over normalization. Even in digital audio and video compositions, limiting is used instead of normalization in the production process.

Even Nevertheless, when it comes to mixing a song, normalization has a place in the business. There are several instances where normalizing the song rather than restricting or cutting it is preferable.

What is the process of normalization?

Normalization is a technique for totally avoiding clipping in music. When some songs are written, the volume restriction that is necessary for mastering may be exceeded.

When this happens, producers strive to lessen the loudness of individual parts or, if that isn’t possible, compress the material to fit it into the mix.

Both may not be feasible at times, as the track begins to clip. The normalizing effect kicks in at this point. It reduces the dynamic range between softer and louder sounds, which helps to minimize clipping.

Normalization was initially used in hardware devices, such as loudspeakers, to boost the level towards the conclusion of a delivery to make it sound louder. Later on, it began to move toward production systems.

In the late ’80s and early ’90s, producers used normalization to raise the volume of a song. This explains why most music from the 1980s and 1990s lack dynamic range.

When software instruments and music production software became popular, everything changed. They significantly overhauled the mixing process and eliminated the need for normalization.

Over the previous two decades, this has been the case. Normalization is still employed in digital production systems to make individual tracks sound loud and clear without clipping.

Advantages and disadvantages of normalizing

When you add normalization to the mix, the first drawback you’ll notice is that you won’t be able to push the music to its volume limitations according to today’s streaming regulations.

Hardware systems employ normalization methods, which are inferior to limiting and clipping systems.

When compared to normalization, limiting and clipping provide more to the mixing and mastering engineer in terms of making the music seem loud. The only time normalization makes sense is when there is a little amount of room to increase the track’s volume without clipping or generating distortion.

This is one situation where normalization may be used to bring the quieter portions of the music up to level with the rest of the song.

Another downside is that you cannot use a limiter to increase a song with extremely little head space since you will lose detail. This is where you’d think a tool like normalization would come in handy.

This isn’t always the case, because normalization removes the capacity to boost RMS and decreases the dynamic range of the music, making it less engaging.

What is the finest music database?

The music we listen to on streaming sites like Spotify and Apple Music has a maximum volume of roughly 0db RMS and does not exceed that level. The number is roughly -14LUFS in terms of loudness. In digital platforms, the LUFS unit is used to measure the loudness of a sound.


Should I master before normalizing?

It all depends on how the music is currently mixed. It’s preferable if the music is normalized if it sounds open and contains a lot of low-volume parts. It’s advisable to forgo normalizing and move straight to mastering if the music has already been pushed to its limits in mixing.


What is the purpose of normalization?

Normalization is used to ensure that all of the elements in the music sound balanced. This is a technique for removing extremely quiet areas of a song and bringing their loudness up to par with the song’s louder sections.

As a newbie in music production, this may be extremely helpful in balancing a song so that it sounds excellent on any speaker system.


Why does my Spotify playback sound strange?

There are a variety of reasons why your uploaded song sounds strange on Spotify. The normalization or limitation that occurs in the Spotify online platform, which pushes your music to its boundaries, is one of the key causes.

This results in quality loss and distortion. The sound you heard in your audio producing software will not be replicated. As a result, the RMS value for the base should be about -14LUFS.


In the world of music production and mastering, normalization is a crucial process. It’s critical to review all you’ve learned about mixing and mastering before beginning to mix an audio recording.

It’s a matter of trial and error whether you use a technique or not. Unfortunately, this is the most effective method of learning. You’ll learn which one works and which one doesn’t as you gain experience.

It may be simpler to explain something if it is visual. When it comes to audio, though, it’s far more difficult to point to things and declare if this is the case. The easiest method to learn normalization is to apply it to every track and see the results.

If you’re new to mixing and mastering, start with effects and plugins before moving on to more advanced features such as normalization and limiting.


How To Build A Subwoofer Box To Specifications

When it comes to subwoofers, there is no doubt about it: they are pricey. If you have a sound system and want to make your music more bassy, you might have to look around for the best deal or fight on Black Friday.

Or, we find out that we can save money by building the subwoofer box ourselves! You buy the subwoofer, build the box that holds it, and save money by doing it yourself. You also get a unique and personalized subwoofer box.

There aren’t any problems with these boxes at all though! Many of you don’t know where to start or what to do. They have to be made to fit your subwoofer’s needs. When you look at yourself, you don’t know what to do. You have a subwoofer in one hand and wood in the other.

Well, that’s it! In this guide, I’ll show you how to build the right subwoofer box for your needs. Let’s start with it!

How to build a subwoofer box that meets your needs

Making your subwoofer box is very important when you do it. You need to think about the design and planning of it when you do it. This needs to be done right, or your subwoofer won’t work right. When you buy your woofer, the manufacturer will tell you what kind of box it should be in.

Please follow these. Make sure your box’s internal space matches what your manufacturer says it should be. Often, there will be a range of volumes that people should read. As a goal, you want your box to be in that range.

I want to be in the middle of the range, but that isn’t very important. You need to be in the range, though, or your subwoofer won’t work as well as it should. Otherwise, it won’t sound as good.

Use the measurements to figure out how big your box should be in width, depth, and height. When you make it, make sure your measurements are correct to get a good result.


Building the box for the subwoofer speaker

You can follow our 11 steps below to build your subwoofer, or you can do it your own way.

It’s the first step.

To start, measure and cut the main pieces of MDF that will make up the sides, back, front, and top of the box. You can use a table saw with a carbide-tipped blade, or you can use a circular saw to cut things like wood. You will have to be very careful to make your cuts square, smooth, and flat for the best results.

The front should be thicker if you want it to be. You should cut two pieces for the front.

Step two:

Next, use a compass or template to mark where the woofers should be cut out on one of the front pieces of the car. Trace this with a pencil so that you can follow the markings when you do it again.

Step three:

In order to make sure that the two panels for the front are strong and don’t shake, fasten the two front pieces together. To do this, use a lot of carpenter’s glue and screws made of sheet metal to do this.

If you don’t want to make the box double thick, think about adding a bracing somewhere else to make it stronger. Glue and screws can be used to glue and screw 2×2 inch strips of wood to two of the inside seams of your boxes.

Step Four:

A drill press can be used to make a hole near the inside edge of the circle you traced. You want it to be big enough for your jigsaw blade to fit in it. Use a drill with a lot of power if you don’t have one.

Cut out the circle with a jigsaw to make a hole for the woofer to go through.

Step Five:

Same thing: Drill a rectangular hole in the back of the box for the terminal cup with the same method you used for the front.

Run silicone caulk around the edge of the terminal clamp to finish this. With 12 inch sheet metal screws, follow.

It’s Step 6.

To put everything together, it’s time. Pre-drill the holes for each screw before you start to put the board together. Once the holes have been drilled, spread carpenters glue between the pieces. This glue is what makes the box waterproof, so use a lot of it.

It’s Step 7.

A drill can be used to put the pieces together. I used a cordless drill and 2-inch drywall screws, but you can use any drill you have at home. I used 2-inch screws. Keep a wet cloth nearby to clean up spilled glue. You don’t have to use all the glue. You can leave some on the inside edges.

Put the front, back, and sides together. In this case, the box might be a little out of place. It’s not unusual, so don’t worry. Screw the top or bottom on, and everything should line up. You can also use furniture clamps to help you straighten it if you’re having a hard time with it.

It’s Step 8.

Drop the subwoofer in slowly to make sure it fits. If the box is a little out of square, the fit might be a little tight. You can use sandpaper to rasp or widen the opening a little bit.

The ninth step.

A pencil can be used to mark where the screws go. Remove the subwoofer and the holes that have been drilled, and put them in the screws that hold it in place.

The 10th step.

To make sure everything is sealed, wait for the glue to dry completely before you do anything. In the next step, run some silicone caulk over the box’s internal seams. Before you put the subwoofer back in, let it dry for 12-14 hours so it can be used again.

During the curing process, some caulk emits acetic acid fumes, which can damage your subwoofer. You must wait.

The 11th step.

You can hook up the speaker wires from the terminal cup to the subwoofer when the caulk has set, so you can play music. Then, put the subwoofer back in the box and use rope caulk to make sure it doesn’t get hard.

It’s done! You can connect the box to your sound system or change the look of the box.

The last word

This is the end of our journey to build a subwoofer, just like that! As you can see, building a subwoofer box isn’t too hard, as long as you follow the subwoofer’s instructions. You can get this information from the manufacturer and use it to make your box look the way you want it to look.

Remember to measure and cut your pieces, and make sure you follow our instructions to make a subwoofer box that will work well.